Tuesday, June 22, 2010

How to run a successful RCIA program.

 Interior of the Merovingian bapistry of St. Jean in Poitiers

As a follow up to my previous post on the horrors that often accompany RCIA programs, I thought I would delve into the positive side of the issue: how to put together and run a successful, educational and faith forming RCIA program, which, believe it or not, can be done. As I said in my prior post, I think the Church should ultimately rethink the entire idea of RCIA. I'm not saying it should be scrapped altogether; teaching the faith in a structured, class setting has certain benefits (of course, the problem is that these days it is seldom a class and seldom structured). What I do think is that RCIA needs to be made but one part of many possible avenues of entry for coming into the Church, so that pastors can respond accordingly to the needs of various individuals. I know several Protestants who I hope will be entering the Church in the next couple of years; while I rejoice at this, I am also deathly afraid that they will have an experience of RCIA like the one I described last time - something which will drive them away from Mater Ecclesia rather than into her bosom.

It is an unjust situation that a Catholic should face this dilemma - wanting their friends to come into the Church but fearful that the very process of making them Catholic will drive them away. This is why RCIA needs to be reevaluated, overhauled and placed as one option among many for people coming into the Church. This is also why I am going to post on how myself and my predecessor and co-blogger Anselm put together a successful RCIA program for out parish.

In the first place, we need to jettison any idea that the RCIA experience is going to be about experience at all; what I mean is that we need to abandon the diocesan-pushed idea of RCIA as a "faith sharing" forum where participants discuss their spiritual journey and their feelings. Rather, RCIA will be academic in nature; a series of classes - lectures. Sure, there will be discussion and interaction, but the sessions will primarily be made up of lecture time in which you (the DRE, director, or whatever) teach and the students listen receptively. This is a very, very important point and is the first step. This step must be taken in your mind before classes ever begin - these are to be truly classes in the traditional, academic sense. Make sure you are prepared to really teach and not just share experiences, and make sure the pastor is on board with this as well.

Now, before classes begin, interview all potential catechumens and candidates. Our classes begin in late August, so usually in July or early August I have private interviews with everybody who has signed up for the classes. They fill out a sheet with all their important info on it, date of baptism if applicable, etc. But the most important reasons for the interview are (1) to assess the potential catechumen/candidate to see if they have good reason for doing what they are doing; i.e., "Why do you want to become Catholic?"  (2) to inform them up front of the nature of the classes and, more importantly, of the commitments they will need to make (3) to see if they will require an annulment; if so, the case is referred to the pastor.

A little more elaboration on the second point regarding commitment: when I am interviewing people, I try to make RCIA sound challenging, maybe a little more so than it actually is. They need to commit to coming to class every single Monday night for the next nine months, showing up at various liturgical events, coming to a few extra-curricular activities (like a trip down to Detroit for a TLM on Palm Sunday, so they can get exposure to the Extraordinary Form), coming to Mass every Sunday and Holy Day of Obligation and (if they are engaged or have a boyfriend/girlfriend) abstaining from all sexual relations. If I get a person who is cohabiting I tell them up front that they will not be received into the Church as long as that state of affairs continues (but I usually refer these cases to the pastor, who makes the final call).

This meeting presents Catholicism as something very challenging - and therefore valuable - and puts them in a disposition to be willing to work and suffer, if need be, for the Faith. It also weeds out people who would not be able to put up with all of the requirements. This is no real loss; it is better to get such people out at the very beginning rather than let them go through the motions and then let them into the Church with sinful habits already formed (like fornication, Mass-skipping, etc.).

Okay, now for the actual curriculum - this is important, and this is where many RCIA classes fail. In the first place, many have no curriculum so to speak of. They have a lot about sharing spiritual experiences, but little concrete in the form of academic instruction/catechesis; this is why, in my previous post, the RCIA director was unable to give the Protestant catechumen any reason why she should become Catholic, saying instead that it was "for her to decide." To avoid this, we will need to come up with a definitive curriculum. Remember, your people are there to receive something from you - what are you going to give them?

Secondly, this curriculum must cover the whole of Catholic faith, morals and spirituality. It must not be narrowly focused on "social justice" issues, heavily bent towards "service projects" or parish involvement. Programs that are weighted down with these elements tend towards the heresy of activism - giving the impression that being Catholic is all about doing a bunch of stuff and making people feel good because they are doing things rather than making them holier by forming their soul. Instead of making your program top-heavy with these sorts of efforts, develop it to be broadly dogmatic; the classes will be about what Catholics believe. Only after understanding what we believe is it proper to discuss how we act on our beliefs.

One other pitfall to avoid - and I can't stress this enough - do not set up your RCIA classes to be based on the liturgical year. I know that a lot of parishes and even diocesan offices recommend this approach, but it is doomed to failure, for two reasons:

(1) While helpful to occasionally discuss liturgical feasts and readings, doing so exclusively gives the impression that the classes are not going anywhere. Remember, the liturgical year is primarily devotional in nature, not catechetical. I've heard many testimonies from disgruntled catechumens who have said, "I didn't get anything out of RCIA at this other parish; all we did was sit around and talk about the readings." Just following the readings and the liturgical year is not pedagogically sufficient for the formation that RCIA requires.

(2) Furthermore (and this is the flip side of the first point) the Catholic Faith can only be fully grasped when it is presented in its integrity, with regard to the hierarchy of truths, and in an organic fashion. Certain truths need to be taught in a certain order, so that student can apprehend higher, more fundamental truths at the outset in order to see how other truths "interlock" with them to form a composite body of doctrine and morality. Basing classes on the liturgical year, even partially, destroys this essential order and obstructs the instructor from presenting topics hierarchically and organically. It gives the impression that the Faith is a jumble of doctrines with little correlation to each other. Since Catholicism is most certainly the most logically consistent religious system in existence, to deprive catechumens of the knowledge of this logical synthesis borders on sacrilege.

Okay, so I've told you what not to do with your curriculum; so what should you do with it?

In our program we use the model laid out in the Catechism of the Catholic Church: first theology, then sacraments, morality, and finally prayer; I've tinkered with this a little bit by adding some apologetics at the outset and some other miscellaneous topics. Here is an outline of what my RCIA year looks like topically (note how they are broken up into larger thematic groupings):

Apologetics

Sept. 14: Proofs for God’s Existence
Sept. 21: The Divinity of Christ

Doctrine

Sept. 28: Scripture & Tradition
Oct. 5: The Blessed Trinity
Oct. 12: Creation, the Fall, Angels & the Devil
Oct. 19: Incarnation of Christ & Crucifixion
Oct. 26: The Church
Nov. 9: The Blessed Virgin Mary
Nov. 16: Purgatory
Nov. 23: Heaven, Hell & Second Coming of Christ

Sacraments I

Nov. 30: Sacraments &  Liturgy
Dec. 7: Baptism & Confirmation
Dec. 14: The Eucharist
Dec. 21: Sin & Confession
Jan. 4: Anointing of the Sick

Morality

Jan. 11: Freedom &  Happiness
Jan. 18: Moral Virtues
Jan. 25: 1st, 2nd, 3rd Commandments
Feb. 1: 4th Commandment
Feb. 8: 5th Commandment
Feb. 15: 6th & 9th Commandments
Feb. 22: 7th & 10th Commandments
Mar. 1: 8th Commandment & Church Precepts

Miscellaneous Topics

Mar. 8: Church History 33 - 1054 AD
Mar. 15: Church History 1054 - 2008 AD
Mar. 22: Saints / Communion of Saints
Mar. 29: The Papacy & Hierarchy

Sacraments II

Apr. 12: The Mass
Apr. 19: Holy Orders
Apr. 26: The Matrimony

Mystagogy (Post-Baptismal Instruction)


May. 3: Introduction to Prayer
May. 10: The Lord’s Prayer
May. 17: Dinner & Reflection (I take them out to a nice restaurant and we just talk about the year)


Note that by moving topically, sometimes the class topics do line up with liturgical feast days - the class on Purgatory just happens to fall close to All Souls Day and the class on the Second Coming falls during the week prior to Advent when the eschatological readings are done. It's nice when this happens, but it's not so desirable that I rearrange classes to make it happen. For me, preserving this order  in the presentation is more important than aligning with the readings.

There is an inner logic to this line-up: Apologetics comes first in order to specifically answer the question "Why am I here in this class?" It is also good because it gets certain objections out of the way that can linger and fester if not dealt with up front. It's not impossible for a man to sit through four months of RCIA but keep questioning whether or not it is all hogwash because he has never had the existence of God sufficiently proven to him; and if he can't even accept God's existence entirely, why would he accept, say, the Church's teaching on contraception? Deal with the big apologetical issues first, which can be summed up in two questions: Why believe in God? Why believe in Christ? Once these are out of the way, you are set to get into theology.

The miscellaneous topics are just important stuff that people need to understand if they are Catholic, and which are greatly misunderstood.

So how are these lessons actually composed? What do they look like? If you click here, you can see a sample of one of my class outlines, in this case, on the papacy and the hierarchy. I will lecture from these notes myself; in addition, I will pass out a copy of this to every person at the beginning of class so they can follow along, take notes, etc. This way, by the time you reach Easter, they have a 200 page booklet of Catholic dogma for future reference.

My lessons all have a few things in common:

They begin with a quote from the Scriptures as well as a quote from a saint for meditation; this gets the tone for the class and grounds the doctrine in the Bible while also cementing it firmly together with Tradition. From the very outset I get them thinking about Divine Revelation in terms of Scripture and Tradition together.

The bulk of the content is based on or quoted from the CCC, which is what my pastor wanted, but which also ensures that you are teaching what the Church considers a "sure norm" for the faith; as much as I love traditionalism, you want to make sure that you are teaching mainstream stuff and not going off onto tangents that might not be immediately relevant to the situation of your catechumens.

Not to say I don't work in Tradition - the lessons are seasoned with quotations from the saints, Aquinas, Church Councils (all of them) and a list of books for additional reading. Furthermore, every lecture draws on examples from Church history to make various dogmatic or pastoral points - the end result is that the catechumens do not walk away with a skewered view of Catholicism (like, there's the "old" Catholicism and then there's the "new", updated Church); instead, they learn to view the Church in its historical fullness as a single, organic entity and to value Tradition as a lens through which to interpret and understand the teachings of the Faith. This appeal to tradition is solidified when I take them to an Extraordinary Form Mass shortly before Easter. If you get it right, they will pick up on traditional issues as you go. For example, if you teach properly on the majesty and reverence owed to God in justice, they will naturally start to ask, "Then why doesn't this parish have the tabernacle more centrally located? Why doesn't everybody receive in the tongue?" and similar questions about decorum and fittingness. Just teaching the Faith makes them orthodox and traditional without them realizing it. You should never have to stand up and say, "Let me give you five reasons why parishes should never be built in the round"; they can deduce these conclusions from the simple truth of the Faith alone if you just give it to them. That's all an RCIA instructor needs to do.

What about RCIA teams? Do we use an RCIA team? Nope. My pastor's opinion is "I pay you to be the DRE. You teach them." This is good enough reason for me; but from a pedagogical viewpoint, it is disorienting to have a string of teachers instead of only one. Can you think of any other field where this is standard? Does a company want a string of managers coming in one after another? Does any school district think it is a good idea to have two or three different teachers take a class within a single year? What does it say about a professional sports team (Detroit Lions?) when they go through a head coach every year and a half for several years? If these examples are all unanimously agreed to be bad for the team/students/employees, why would we adopt such a model to form our catechumens, whose souls are at stake? Just when you get used to one instructor you have to adjust to the eccentricities of another. It also retards true relationships from building between the instructor and the class; at least that's my opinion. Yet despite all these negatives an RCIA "team" is standard for most parishes. That's because most parishes care more about their programs being inclusive, democratic and representative than they do about actual faith formation.

Finally, it might be objected that this academic approach leaves out too much. Some object that being too academic renders the "evangelical" nature of the Faith weaker - that by focusing too much on converting their minds we fail to convert their spirits; after all, Christ is a Person, and they need to be led into relationship with a Person, not just membership in an organization. Can this academic approach lead to heartfelt conversion as well as intellectual formation?

Absolutely. In fact, more so than other approaches that lay the emphasis squarely on experience. Remember, there is no dichotomy between knowledge and relationship. In fact, before we can adequately live God we must know what we are loving. Basic Thomism comes into play here: the essential vision of God is an intellectual vision that transforms the rest of the person in consequence of the intellectual sight of God. Practically speaking, this means that the truth itself is evangelistic. If we simply teach the truth, and teach it with conviction, then its beauty and splendor are evident and compel the will to act on what the intellect has apprehended. I have found, in five years of teaching RCIA in two different programs, that when you simply teach the truth the interior conversions experienced by the participants in the class are more profound and long-lasting. This is because the truth is transformative, and as they grasp the truths of the Church with docility (as opposed to being put on the spot to "share" their feelings), they find themselves transformed in the will and soul even as they learn the truths with the mind. Ironically, if you focus on experience and conversion as primary ends (as opposed to education), they get neither education not conversion; but if you emphasize education, they become converted as well.

I hope this helps. Please feel free to pass this post along to anyone you know who may be involved in RCIA or contact me with any questions. Oh, and don't forget to pray for your catechumens constantly. Very much depends on this and you are accountable for their souls while they are in your care. If you've done everything right, you'll see your former students around the parish for years to come and get feedback like this:

"I most enjoyed [Boniface's] enthusiasm and reverence for the subject matter! He was able to relate each separate piece to every other piece, and to the whole, so that both the intellectual and spiritual Truth and Beauty of God and His Church were made obvious and undeniable. It was the most fulfilling and rewarding journey of my life! As the weeks went by I realized how important it is to truly understand the reasons why Catholicism is what it is, why we do what we do, and especially why knowledge is so important for spiritual growth.”

This from a former atheist of thirty years.

I don't toot my own horn here; it was Anselm who really got this program rolling - I just polished it up. But I bring it up because I firmly believe the key is not in me, or Anselm, or whoever else presents, but in the fundamental approach taken towards the classes - are they for sharing or for education? Will the instructor teach or will the catechumens blab? Will the curriculum be organic and dogmatic or based on the lectionary? These questions determine the success or failure of the program. Here I've laid out my formula for success - employ it at your parish and I think you'll get good results.

Pax.

24 comments:

Tony said...

Dear Boniface, - Toot your own horn by all means. This sounds like a comprehensive introduction to the Faith. It would be good if you could gather all this material together to form a textbook, complete with bibliography - that is, if you could find a publisher.

BONIFACE said...

Tony-

I'm ahead of you already...LOL. I just need some more free time. I always have about 100 projects going on in my head at once.

Anonymous said...

Very, very helpful post. (I'm the "Anonymous"who asked about the pre-catechumenate.) I totally agree that it needs to be instructional. Also, I particularly like the idea of a pre-interview. I think that's something we've been missing and could serve us extremely well. Thanks for the ideas!

Nick said...

I've had this kept bookmarked for a while now and want to save it for future reference.

Here are some questions/comments I have:

(1) What is your plan and approach to speaking on Christ's Divinity in only the second class? I can understand proving God's existence, but Christ's Divinity specifically seems too early, or at least if presented in an Apologetics fashion rather than a historical narrative.

(2) I don't see how you can fill up a whole class period discussing One of the Ten Commandments. I could see 30min talking about a Commandment, but the whole class time is a bit long.

(3) How long should a class be? 1 hour seems too short, 2 sounds good to me.

BONIFACE said...

Nick-

Christ's Divinity is presented in class 2 in an apologetic manner. The reason for this twofold - (1) everything they are experiencing in the Catholic Church, from why we genuflect to why the sacraments are efficacious, makes sense only if Christ is divine. If people don't understand this, then nothing else in the hierarchy of truths is intelligible. Second, from prior experience, if the divinity of Christ is not dealt with up front, people can have lingering doubts that they nevertheless do not express. So you are going on, teaching on the sacraments, commandments, etc. only to find someone raise an objection about Christ's divinity when the class is 75% over and you think, "Man, how did I miss that?" And, if they have had a lingering doubt all this time, how much of the truth did they really accept? For this reason, Christ's divinity is dealt with up front.

Re: the First Commandment, there is a lot to unpack there. Why does God command we worship Him alone? How does worshiping false gods debase the human person? How is God's emphatic statements in Deuteronomy that He is "one" square with the Trinity? What are the sins against the first commandment? Why are things like agnosticism and atheism sins? What is the difference between voluntary and involuntary doubt? Why are graven images prohibited in the Old Testament but allowed in the New? You can see how this can go on...

I book classes for two hours. I try to get done in under an hour and a half, but if they plan for two it gives room for questions and discussion - also, if the topic is good, I usually need the entire two hours.

Big_Aengus said...

I am new to this blog, and look forward to following over the coming year. I am the product of an RCIA program, and have also been involved over the last seven years in my churches RCIA program. My observations have been that what worked for larger groups in the past has not worked for more recent groups. In my opinion the program has perhaps become a bit stagnant and dominated by “Old School” “Cradle Catholics” who don’t appear to be concerned that they are perhaps talking over the heads of the candidates and beating them over the head with various rituals and doctrines without really delving into the spiritual aspects of what they are talking about. I am also interested in how you gather potential candidates and sell them on taking up the program. Do you incorporate any type of retreat (such as Christ Renews His Parish) into your program?
Keep up the good work!
Your Brother in Christ
Ron McCalip

Anonymous said...

I really appreciated this.
Thank you!

Anonymous said...

I went through RCIA 13 years ago, after reading my way into the Church and almost left because it was horrible! I knew way more than the teachers. When I was invited to teach, I was upset with the materials used. They have become somewhat better in the last few years and I have been asked again to teach as part of a team. Is there any way I could have a look at more of your materials and show them and this post to the DRE and pastor?

BONIFACE said...

Anonymous-

Absolutely...that's why this post is up. Post again with your email and I'll contact you (and won't publish your comment).

Mark of the Vineyard said...

What do you think about planning RCIA (or "Sunday school") around Holy Mass? Explaining what goes on in each part of the Mass (as well as the other sacraments) as well as the beliefs that are behind them?

BONIFACE said...

Mark-

I would never plan RCIA around the Mass or the lectionary because the Mass and the lectionary have their own inner order which is different from the organic order necessary for presenting the truths of the Faith in their most understandable and cohesive way. But, if you are referring to something other than comprehensive doctrinal instruction, perhaps a Sunday school class where presenting the whole Faith in one year is not a goal, then I don't see a problem with it.

Mark of the Vineyard said...

@Boniface:

Thanks for the feedback. I have thought about using the Mass as the basis for catechetical sessions, but given that almost every parish here uses a type of national "catechism program guide" I find that I have no place where I can implement such a model.

thirdmillennialtemplar said...

This project for an RCIA class is one I share the hunger and thirst for, as a convert to Catholicism and a theologian. Especially as one who would like to help with RCIA in the future, and who would enjoy implementing something like this, I will be sure to refer back to the outline (all while taking the liberty of changing some things)in the future. Thanks.

Anonymous said...

At present, I am Anglican who has been more frustrated than I can say by attending sharing experience type courses rather than well structured, logical and truly instructional ones. This has saddened and distressed me and made me feel quite desperate, not knowing where to turn for proper guidance, but having the misery compounded by feeling unable to voice my unhappiness. Everything you have said about RCIA resonates with me, and gives me hope that I should keep seeking. It is also comforting to me to feel that my concerns have not been ill founded. I feel immensely relieved!

Anonymous said...

At present, I am Anglican who has been more frustrated than I can say by attending sharing experience type courses rather than well structured, logical and truly instructional ones. This has saddened and distressed me and made me feel quite desperate, not knowing where to turn for proper guidance, but having the misery compounded by feeling unable to voice my unhappiness. Everything you have said about RCIA resonates with me, and gives me hope that I should keep seeking. It is also comforting to me to feel that my concerns have not been ill founded. I feel immensely relieved!

Jeff said...

I just wanted to thank you for posting blogs concerning the restructure of the RCIA classes. I was converted from a protestant church this year and went through a bad course. This was mainly because the courses were somewhat disorganized and because this one lady who has been going to the RCIA classes for 3 years straight have chased most of the people away. As a result I was only 1 of 2 who was confirmed & because this one lady basically drove the others away from the class.

Frank said...

looks good. I would suggest you follow the liturgical calender though -- for example, we teach about Saint right before All Saints and Mary right after -- It works because the Immaculate Conception is right then -- Baptism right at the baptism of the Lord, etc. Make the discussion on symbolism easier

Anonymous said...

I have a question about who can teach RCIA. Is it assumed that a teacher in the program is a practicing Catholic in communion with the Church? When would a divorced person who is not in communion with the Church, and is not receiving Communion themselves be qualified to teach? I see this as very counterproductive.

BONIFACE said...

Good question! Give a me a few days to answer and I will post my response here.

Suzie Q said...

I f you have time, I would truly like to know if you are familiar with and have an opinion on the Association for Catechumenal Ministry RCIA program, facilitated through Stuebenville University.

I read your "How to Run a Successful RCIA Program" and loved it. It's the way we have been doing it for many years. Now our director is turning to the ACA program because it's "more organic and relational," which says to me "touchy-feely" but it seems to have very good reviews. It does not sound like your program at all (at least as it was explained by our Dirctor). As it was presented to me, it's more conversational (relational), with people talking about their "experiences." Not the way I think it should be done and your blog confirms that in my mind. Would appreciate your opinion. Thanks much.

BONIFACE said...

You know, I am not familiar with that. But anytime the center of the program is people sharing experiences, it is not going to be good. Sharing experiences should be something that comes organically out of engaging discussion, not something that is moved to front and center. It also unfairly puts people on the spot who are not as talkative or open as others. I would stick to something more traditional, more like a "class" (which is what people are expecting anyway) and try to elicit some conversation in the context of that class structure without deviating from it.


I have all my notes and outlines available for free online here: unamsanctamcatholicam.com/home/parish-resources/83-parish-resources/120-rcia-classes.html

Also, regarding the question from March on who can or should teach RCIA, see here: http://unamsanctamcatholicam.com/home/parish-resources/83-parish-resources/302-who-can-teach-rcia.html

Richard said...

Thank you so much for the resources you provide here. Could I copy this post as well as your post "RCIA Horror Stories" on my blog and link/reference back to your blog here? What I'm doing with my blog is collecting together reading that I find helpful for future reference. You can find it here: http://rugwig.blogspot.com

God bless!

BONIFACE said...

Richard,

Absolutely you can! Please send me a link when you are done.

And you do know about this on my other site, right?

http://www.unamsanctamcatholicam.com/home/parish-resources/83-parish-resources/120-rcia-classes.html

Richard said...

Thank you for letting me copy these. You can find them here:

http://rugwig.blogspot.com/2013/09/how-to-run-successful-rcia-program.html

http://rugwig.blogspot.com/2013/09/rcia-horror-stories.html

Yes, thank you for the link to the free resources. I've included it.

God bless you!